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What is meant by an education? - The Coaching Association

What is meant by an education? - The Coaching Association

What is meant by an education?

Education a goal-oriented process

Training is the, often goal-oriented, process where someone through systematic teaching and training develops and acquires knowledge, education and skills. With Lev Vygotsky's view, all education means that the individual is educated to understand the world of cultural concepts.

Education is conducted in a variety of forms around the world, and everyone's right to education is included in human rights. According to an international standard, the education system is usually divided into primary school (or primary school), secondary school (a stage corresponding to upper secondary school), and higher education, which can be college or university. In addition, there is education during early childhood, preschool. The secondary school can be a vocational school, a high school or a preparatory school for university. [1] In addition, there is usually an opportunity for adult education, as well as special schools and special schools. In some countries, there is the possibility of home schooling as an alternative to regular school.

Schools and universities can be public (state or municipal) or private or run in the form of independent schools. Education outside the traditional education system is also provided by other organizations, such as companies, associations, trade unions, and popular movements. A completed education usually ends with a degree or a credential.

The doctrine of education

Main article: Pedagogy

The doctrine of education, pedagogy, was established as a university subject for the first time in Halle in the 18th century; The world's first professor of pedagogy was Ernst Christian Trapp, who was awarded the title in 1779. In Sweden, pedagogy was developed as a lecture subject shortly afterwards, in philosophy, but as a subject it was condemned by the universities of Lund and Uppsala in the 1820s, as they claimed such practical study was outside the university area. Teacher education, with practical pedagogy, took place at special universities in the late 20th century. Pedagogy became an independent university subject in Sweden during the beginning of the 20th century, after a long discussion with the current positivist theory of science as a starting point, whether pedagogy could be regarded as science. [2]

The subject itself, like a large part of philosophy, can be traced to Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Some later philosophers who have made lasting contributions to pedagogy are Pierre Abélard, Thomas of Aquino, Vives, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Ratke, Johann Amos Comenius, Francke, John Locke, Rousseau, Basedow. With Pestalozzi, the subject is usually said to be independent of philosophy; the psychologist Herbart also contributed to this. Historically, therefore, pedagogy can be traced to both philosophy and psychology. The prominent role of religion has meant that pedagogy also has many common denominators with theology. Due to the social anchoring of education, however, pedagogy is usually transferred to the social sciences.

The pedagogy aims to teach teaching methods, research on the goals and essence of education, and on the content of education, in formal education, mass media, and other information activities. It concerns identity, competence, education, values, skills and knowledge, the development of qualities in man in relation to his society, and is assessed according to how this is expressed verbally and through activities. Some of the educational goals are determined politically, through course plans and curricula. In most countries, there are ministries in governments that deal with education issues.

Some of the leading educators of recent times are John Dewey, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

History and theory

Main articles: Pedagogical philosophy and the history of pedagogy A Philosopher Giving that Lecture on the Orrery, in which a Lamp is put in place of the Sun., painting by Joseph Wright of Derby. The picture represents children learning about astronomy

The word education goes back to the word education. The word formation (German: Education) became a buzzword in the German-speaking world during the Romantic period, and originated in the 18th century. Before it was used formatin the Romance languages ​​with roughly the same meaning, to shape the one who receives the education. Both the word education and training began to appear in the Swedish language during the late 18th century. At first, the words were considered synonyms and alternated without any difference in meaning, but have since become opposites: education is goal-oriented according to external rules and governed by bodies other than the individual himself, while education is an internal, voluntary process without a concrete goal. [3]

Utbildning som fenomen är mycket äldre, och kan historiskt säkerställas från forntiden och antiken i Orienten och Medelhavsländerna. Dess historia sammanfaller med pedagogikens idéhistoria. I Kina, Babylonien och forntidens Egypten fanns ett behov av att utbilda skrivare, och där uppkom möjligen de första skolorna; de finns belagda fyra eller fem tusen år tillbaka. Spartanerna i antikens Grekland hade statliga institutioner för utbildning av medborgarna, från sju års ålder till den ålder då de skulle göra värnplikt, vid 20 års ålder. Syftet var uteslutande socialpedagogiskt: att skapa en kompentent militär, och att fostra spartanerna till att härska över heloterna. Dessutom utbildades de i musik, av patriotiska skäl, och i gymnastik, av fysiska skäl. Atenarnas utbildning innefattade även grammatik, varmed analfabetismen var sällsynt omkring 400 f.Kr.[4] Förutom det patriotiska syftet, spelade utbildningen en etisk och religiös roll, såsom förmedlare av de gällande normerna. Från och med hellenismen blev gymnasierna, som ursprungligen var gymnastikundervisning, en högre läroanstalt. Platons akademi brukar tas för universitetens föregångare. Från och med hellenismen börjar individualpedagogiska idéer framträda, att utbildning sker för individens egen utveckling.

Gathering of doctors at the University of Paris. Thumbnail from a medieval manuscript of "Chants royaux". From the Bibliothèque National, Paris.

At least since the Ionic philosophers of nature in the 5th century BC. The history of ideas in education has been fertilized with the critical curiosity that has led to the emergence of scientific research. According to Protagora's theory of science, self-observation is the only source of knowledge (but as an educator he advocated imitation). Socrates indirectly expressed similar views, in that through his dialogues he wanted to extract the true insight of the soul, with the so-called heuritic method (which also has several other names, such as Mayevics, "art of childbirth"). Such a view of science and knowledge conflicts with a view of education as a process in which knowledge and science are taught, either by getting students to imitate with exercises, or by the (reading or) lecture method. Pure induction or heuritic method in teaching, however, does not occur in the sense that all knowledge is created by the students themselves: if man were referred exclusively to his own talents, science would not be able to develop. [5]

Because Socrates saw education from the individual perspective, he is usually emphasized as one of the earliest individual educators. As an early social pedagogical theorist, he is usually mentioned by disciple Plato. Plato advocated in The state an education which was intended to benefit the state and society, by utilizing and developing the various faculties which individuals, in his view, have innate, in their natures. On that basis, Plato developed an education system, with different educations for different estates. His system was detailed in terms of which subjects would be taught, why they would, and what consequences the education would have for the students and the state. For Socrates, the true knowledge that education should therefore strive for was an inner insight, an awareness. A teacher should not imprint finished sentences in the students, not force on them thoughts that were foreign to them, he thought. Socrates has therefore been emphasized as a forerunner of both the ideal of enlightenment and Freudian psychoanalysis. Plato saw in the state-based education system he set up, a purposeful tactic to create the skills the state needed, in the form of leaders, the military, and merchants. With his social pedagogical approach, Plato was able to justify that the state would pay for all education. These two perspectives on education have survived, whether the benefit or the happiness should be decisive.

For those who primarily see education in social pedagogy, teaching is a way to make society survive: “Traditions, customs, ceremonies, fairy tales and myths, religion and science are propagated from the elderly to the younger /… / [teaching] is often after its time, rarely before. ”[6]

Socrates' view of the self-employed acquisition of knowledge has been the one that has developed the most technologies in recent times. John Dewey developed a new method of education in the 20th century, learning by doing, which was intended for students to experience or perform when they learned, because he believed that a pure lecture or reading method was too abstract to make the learned concept. The Dewey idea of ​​education contradicts the passive learning that characterizes classical education. For Dewey, education was also very much a matter of democracy, and his view anti-elitist. The project method, which is a form of the former, has since spread to fields other than education. With the increasing democratization, the students' co-influence on their education increased during the 20th century, for example through problem-based learning, with which the view of education went from passive learning to an active acquisition of knowledge. Another changed view is that mechanical learning, memorizing a text, has diminished and lost status. To some extent, computer programs have been able to replace the teacher in teaching.

Liedman skiljer å sin sida på en mekanisk och en organisk syn på människan som särskiljande för olika syn på till exempel universitetens roll. Den mekaniska synen innebär att människan är en lerklump som i bästa fall formas av skickliga pedagoger, och målet med skolning är en yrkesexamen. Den organiska synen på människan ser utvecklingen som något som styrs inifrån, med bildningen som mål och där läraren odlar sina elever som en trädgårdsmästare. Liedman vidhåller emellertid att all bildning kräver utbildning i någon utsträckning.[7] Med bildningsidealet för utbildningen, som till exempel den hermeneutiska pedagogiken framhåller, sätts begreppsbildningen som mer primär. Enligt humankapitalteorin sker sällan kunskapsinhämtning för kunskapens egen skull, utan sker i ett bestämt syfte, till exempel för att göra karriär eller skaffa sig fördelar, vilket talar emot bildningsidealet.[8] Några inflytelserika pedagogiska filosofiska riktningar under 1900-talet, är de analytiska, marxistiska, thomistiska, existentialistiska, kritiska och hermeneutiska. Utbildningssystemen i Skandinavien, USA, och England har traditionellt omfattat den analytiska filosofins grundsatser, att utbildning skall ske på empiriskt vetenskaplig grund och med en materiell världsbild. I Tyskland och Frankrike var existentialismen inflytelserik under mitten av 1900-talet och därefter, med en utbildningssyn som strävade efter att fostra fria och ansvarstagande individer. I den marxistiska pedagogiken finns en uttalad strävan efter att fostra socialistiska samhällsvarelser med kompetens som klasslösa kommunistsamhällen behöver. Nythomismen är den gällande pedagogiken i katolicismen. Den kritiska och den hermeneutiska pedagogiken syftar till att medvetandegöra genom utbildning. Centrala värdepedagogiska frågeställningar sedan efterkrigstiden har varit hur utbildning skall förhålla sig till elitism, samt hur konflikten skall lösas i att både verka för pluralism och att överföra normer som anses vara universella (demokrati, de mänskliga rättigheterna med mera).

Jean Piaget förändrade utbildningen i stora delar av världen, genom att hävda att barnets intellektuella utveckling genomgår stadier. Efter den tidiga barndomens utvecklingsfaser, inträffar enligt Piaget vid omkring 7 år de konkreta operationernas stadium, som vid ingången till tonåren utvecklas till de abstrakta operationernas stadium. När barnet är omkring 7 år kan det, menar Piaget, som regel föreställa sig saker som inte är direkt närvarande, och omkring 12 år testa hypoteser i tanken. Enligt Piagets teori kan alltså inte ett barn förstå logik före en viss ålder: att fråga vem som är längst av A, B och C om A är längre än B men kortare än C, är, menar han, bortkastat på en sjuåring.[9] Teorin har kritiserats av Howard Gardner för att sakna globalt perspektiv, genom att utesluta skriftlösa kulturers inlärningsprocesser, och för att bara gälla den logiska formen av intelligens. Gardner menar i stället att det finns olika slag av intelligenser, och att de flesta människor har en av dessa mer uttalad. Till intelligenstyperna finns också olika slag av intelligensutveckling, menar Gardner. Enligt Gardners teori är utvecklingen mer flexibel än vad Piagets medger, inte bara vad beträffar underbarn eller barn med hjärnskador – därtill kommer individuella skillnader i utvecklingen av intelligenstyper. Gardner fäster också större vikt vid utvecklingen av jaguppfattningen som nyckel till utbildning av förmågor och tekniker.

The so-called media revolution (radio, television, cinemas, the internet), refugee flows, and globalization from the 20th century onwards, have led to the need to relate to cultural encounters in education throughout the world. Diversity and cultural pluralism are in focus in so-called intercultural pedagogy, which aims at active and in-depth knowledge of other cultures. [10]

Forms of education

Prince Gustaf and his two brothers at a lecture with Professor Lindblad at Theatrum Oeconomicum, Uppsala University 1846.

Education can take place at institutions (universities, schools), as an intern or apprentice at workplaces, or conducted independently at, for example, libraries. As a rule, a distinction is made between formal education, as well as non-formal and informal education. Formal education refers to education in the traditional education system (primary school, secondary school, university), or other education that provides formal competence, competence that a society accepts as valid and verifiable. Informal education refers to the lifelong learning that takes place daily through contacts, reading and experience. Non-formal education is education that is conducted outside the traditional education system, by organizations, companies or interest groups. [11]

Elementary schools, or elementary schools, have existed at least since the heyday of ancient Greece, and the same applies to elementary schools and colleges for higher education in science, religion, and philosophy. During the time of Jesus, it was a religious duty in Israel to send children to school, where students would learn the law of Moses and other religious injunctions. During the Roman conquest, the Jewish school system was destroyed. In Sparta, the state took care of the children through the primary schools from the age of 7, as the children from that age lived in special school facilities. Such institutions still exist, in the form of boarding schools and colleges. The school system in Athens did not have the same state roots, where a slave with the title pedagogue assisted in the teaching and picked up the children in the morning to school from home. The Athenian schools introduced grammar as a school subject, with which literacy has become a compulsory element in the basic educational goals. In almost every city in the known world, in accordance with the pedagogy of Plato and Aristotle, there were public elementary schools, and the education lasted for boys and girls from 7 to 14 years of age.

Higher education at colleges, universities or academies has existed since Plato's academy and was further developed during Hellenism. The Museion in Alexandria had libraries, professors of medicine, geometry, astronomy, history and philology, a botanical and a zoo, and research was conducted there. Higher education bookish schools existed, but they were privately owned, so higher education was only open to the wealthy. Education as a bookish process had thus become valid in Hellenism, and the teaching consisted largely of reading. Those who could afford it continued after high school to the efeb school, which offered physical education, and where the teacher was called a master.

The Roman education system, which was state-owned from the imperial period, consisted of elementary school (7-10 years), grammar school (11-15 years) and rhetoric school (16-20 years). In addition, there were colleges of law. The education system of the Western world collapsed when the barbarians occupied Rome, because the Germans had no education system. It was then the church that managed the ancient educational tradition, in monastic schools. Other forms of schooling from the Middle Ages are catechetical schools, still found in Alexandria, catechism schools, bourgeois schools, and knight academies. Characteristic of the medieval school system was to divide the school forms according to class, which also meant that the schools were specialized according to the students' need for knowledge. At the knight academies, practical and theoretical martial arts were taught to nobles, which can be seen as a precursor to military academies and military colleges, but being able to write was not necessary for a nobleman. At the bourgeois schools, accounting, reading and writing, and arithmetic were taught. All schools had a church leader as leader, and Latin was compulsory knowledge: Latin was the world language, for education, trade, politics.

The pope officially gave the bishops the task of being responsible for education in the 6th century, with which cathedral schools arose. In many countries, the Church or Islam still plays a prominent role in the school system, including Jesuits who run many schools, the Islamic Al-Azhar University, and independent and private schools. In Sweden, the bishops were the school's highest responsible well into the 20th century, and the education sorted politically in the Ecclesiastical Ministry. The religious claims made the education open to all, throughout the Middle Ages, which, however, did not mean that the education was universal: the church strived to find talents from all walks of life who could become good priests. [12] Vocational training used to always take place as an apprentice when the young people learned vocational secrets and skills or at special vocational schools that the citizens ran in cities, but from industrialization this was organized in the state schools, as various types of secondary education, in Sweden largely integrated into high school. Vocational schools, however, exist in many western countries and in other parts of the world, apart from upper secondary education, which is then perceived as a more theoretical education.

Universities in the western world re-emerged during the Middle Ages, including the University of Paris, and also on the church grounds. At the medieval university a 14-year-old could defend his dissertation, but often it happened later, after seven more years the student could take a licentiate degree (teacher's degree), two years later become a master of philosophy, and only then could the student study the "higher" subjects medicine. law or theology. You could only become a doctor of theology after the age of 35. National education systems still take the calendar age into account, for admission to and graduation from certain levels of education: one usually starts primary school at a certain age, cannot graduate until after another age, or enrolled in secondary education until then, and so on .

As the lower education institutions exclusively taught knowledge, the universities also became seats for research after completing university education. Dissertations have existed since the 12th century with Pierre Abélard, and initially aimed to increase the independent thinking of philosophy and theology students. The dissertation was until the 19th century a teaching method, and only then became a way to ensure the quality of a dissertation by opponents looking for problems with the content of the dissertation. At the university, students have since ancient times been able to obtain an official degree, for example as a lawyer, miner, chancellor, priest.

The idea of ​​popular education, that all citizens are in need of a certain degree of education, arose in the German-speaking world during the Reformation and was resumed during the Romantic period, but had predecessors already in antiquity. The state or municipally run, free, public, compulsory primary school began to emerge in France in the 19th century, at the same time as daycare was established. The form of schooling is now considered to be the norm, everyone's right to education is considered an obvious human right and the right is statutory in the form of compulsory schooling.

In other words, the threefold division of education into primary schools, secondary schools and colleges or universities, which through UNESCO's work for everyone's right to education is international, has long roots. In Sweden it is covered from the 17th century. However, in many countries it is associated with a fourth instance, a university preparatory school, such as the American colleges, which can be formally counted as a secondary school. The length of the education can mainly be determined in time and age, according to knowledge goals, or with a combination of these. Admission to primary school often takes place with flexible school start, but at the mental age when the child enters the stage of the concrete operations, when the child on a social psychological level begins to differentiate between himself and others. [13]

With the increased mobility of individuals and with the establishment of more universities, various attempts at international coordination have been made, such as the Bologna process, in order to be able to compare educations from different higher education institutions. In 2000, UNESCO adopted the Dakar Framework for Action, "Education for All", which sets out global objectives for education, mainly in the field of basic education. [14]

In addition to this system, adult education has been introduced in many countries: folk high schools, study associations, study circles, public libraries. Many universities have distance education and summer courses for further education. Vocational training also takes place to a large extent at various training companies, often in the form of in-house training for further training of employees. Education is also provided by societies and political parties, for example at folk high schools and study associations.

The first school for the deaf was established in Paris in 1755, and since then several such and other special schools have been established around the world, as well as special schools for children with developmental disabilities and for other individuals with special needs.

Private and independent schools are run partly by communities, partly by representatives of special pedagogical theories, and partly by other educational companies. Examples of the pedagogically motivated independent schools are Montessori schools and schools with Waldorf pedagogy. Some training companies have focused on training in a specific language that is not a national language. Religious educational institutions exist from primary school to university.


Main article: Learning Being able to read is considered a human right, and is often a prerequisite for education. The Reading, Pierre-Auguste Renoir (circa 1889).

Learning has in part a psychological dimension, and is treated in developmental psychology and intelligence research. The learning of children, adolescents and adults is related to their respective ages, but the individual variations are very large in terms of, for example, the ability to absorb abstract knowledge at a certain age or to learn a new language. Apart from the psychological factors, the home environment and other social conditions play a major role in learning.

Learning can be defined as an inner activity through which perceptions of phenomena and events in the outside world change, which can also be said to mean acquiring knowledge. [15] Learning is primarily dependent on memory, which in turn is affected by how meaningful the knowledge appears to the learner, motivation, and how attentive it is to what gives knowledge. For various reasons, the memory balance changes both quantitatively (parts are forgotten) and qualitatively (through distortions).

People use different learning techniques, sometimes in different contexts, sometimes they are personality traits. Some have a surface orientation in learning, as the focus is on the text and the words, others have a holistic learning, where the learning is focused on the deeper meaning and meaning of the text. The memory of the latter more often contains conclusions about what has been learned, than is the case with those who learn superficially. At the same time, those with holistic learning often have deeper knowledge. [16]

Different types of learning can also be grouped into signal learning, instrumental learning, cognitive learning and social learning. [17]

In order to test the active learning in education, educational institutions usually require the student to take written and oral tests. Other control functions are essays and apprenticeships. On such grounds, grades are then often given for how effective the learning has been.

Teaching methods

Main article: Teaching methods

Skills and mental knowledge were taught in antiquity and antiquity in a similar way: the student saw how older generations did and imitated them or memorized this. Such a teaching method is usually called an imitation or mechanical learning method. Imitation still has a place in teaching, for example by learning pronunciation of a foreign language, such as socialization, or learning a technique proven by others' experience. Imitation as a method includes exercises, where the student repeats what is to be learned, and exercise and repetition - to "wear in" - are considered superior and inevitable in the teaching, as it increases memory. Imitation leaves no room for the student's individuality, independent thinking or creativity, and is often perceived as an authoritarian method that should be avoided where possible.

The form of teaching has similarities with another of the very oldest methods: the lecture. To some extent, the origin of the lecture method can be explained practically in the lack of books in older times. During a lecture, the teacher reads or tells, while the students take notes. As books became more common, reading aloud was replaced by comments and explanations of the textbooks. During the lecture, students are given the opportunity to ask questions about the textbooks (so-called text analysis), but the teaching form in a contemporary perspective is often seen as a passive form of learning. The lecture method can be combined with the mechanical one, by allowing students to practice their knowledge in exercise books after lectures on, for example, language.

Another teacher-led teaching method is the Socratic heuritic method, where the teacher asks students questions that should lead them to the correct answers. The method is based on the ancient notion that nature has given all people the true knowledge, but that this had been forgotten. Later it was used to develop the logical ability. It has similarities with the dissertation method, which can, however, be more confrontational, and seek errors in the students' conclusions. The heuritic method is sometimes called induction, because the students through individual truths must join the whole of knowledge, instead of through deduction, when the teacher gives the premises.

From the 18th century, the mechanical teaching method began to face sharp criticism, from Rousseau and Basedow, among others. Basedow introduced play as a teaching method, and strived for visualization, for example by building large globes that were used for geography teaching. Since this time, abstract learning has been replaced by activation, illustration and concretization if possible, which is partly motivated by the fact that more and more people have received education, even those who have difficulty absorbing abstractions.

The so-called progressive and student-led methods have since become more numerous, and direct teaching has decreased: Dewyes learning by doing, project methods, seminar exercises, study assignments, group work, and problem-based learning are some of these. The role of the teacher has been partly replaced by self-instructional aids, where the computer has provided many teaching programs for all stages, as well as with, for example, linguaphone and letter courses, which have been partly replaced by equivalents via the internet. The practical motives for the latter teaching methods are that pupils and teachers do not have to coordinate a physical gathering, at least not as often. The progressive methods, which can be both individual or collaborative, are perceived by its proponents as less authoritarian and more pluralistic, more concrete and thereby effective, leading to holistic learning, as well as social promotion. The teacher's role in such teaching becomes guiding or interactive.

Education and language

Language and communication are foundations in all education, not least because knowledge is mainly conveyed linguistically. Students' learning is often valued on linguistic grounds. Language skills are also objectives in the formal education, in deepening the knowledge of one's own language, learning a professional language, or a second language.

Because the church took care of the education in the Middle Ages and because Latin was the world language, the higher education in the western world took place in Latin until the 18th century. In order to be able to undergo university education, it was thus required that the individual mastered Latin well enough to understand the language in speech and text, and to be able to express himself in the language. To some extent, English has taken the place of Latin in the Western world during the 20th century: course literature is sometimes in English, and one who studies at a higher level is expected to both understand and be able to express himself / herself freely in English. A second language is often included in the elementary knowledge that is to be taught in compulsory school.

Teaching in and about the mother tongue is usually motivated either on patriotic or nationalist grounds, or on cognitive grounds. Teaching in the pupil's mother tongue has not always been the norm - or vice versa: teaching has not always been adapted to the pupils' linguistic conditions. From Comenius there was instruction in the mother tongue in parallel with Latin, to then supplant the second language, but only to those who spoke the language of the majority population. With the rise of nationalism in the 19th century, there was a pronounced political effort to construct nation states with linguistic conformity, where each country's education system was used for this assimilation policy purpose to teach the national language, regardless of the mother tongue of the students. [18]

Until the end of the 20th century, there was no primary school education under state auspices for minority groups in or about their mother tongue. There are several interpretive perspectives on the root causes. Some see it from a power perspective, others as mainly based on an assimilation policy, and still others as that the cultural attitude towards minorities changed, which led to a reassessment of home language teaching. [19] For Sweden, mother tongue instruction was introduced in Sami and other minority languages ​​during the 1960s. [20]

Language teaching in the national language and other languages ​​is usually given a lot of space in primary schools. Education in the national language has partly a language-preserving function, but is motivated above all by the fact that the knowledge is necessary for the individual to be able to function in society. This applies regardless of whether the person has the national language as a mother tongue or not. [21] Teaching in other languages ​​takes place to facilitate international understanding and exchange between people with different mother tongues. In the past, bilingualism was considered to have a negative impact on the individual, but this was re-evaluated in the 1970s. Attitudes towards multilingual environments (diglossia) are included in the pedagogy that deals with cultural diversity, and have been a high priority for pedagogy in countries with high immigration, since the 1990s. [22] Language problems such as dyslexia are another area where great efforts have been made to be able to achieve goals for everyone's right to education.

Education and group processes

Lecture hall at the Stockholm School of Economics at Brunkebergstorg 2, in 1911

Communication, collaboration and joint reading in teaching (together or individually) have another aspect: they create interaction and common conceptual or conceptual worlds. Since the majority of all formal education takes place in groups, group processes constitute the education's prerequisites, means, and goals. The social environment of an education can be focused on competition or interaction; as a rule, however, interaction is advocated because group dynamics benefit, and in competition there are inevitably losers. [23]

All collaboration is affected by the individuals' respective self-perceptions. The self-perception includes self-esteem, the complex social identities that students already have and also develop outside of education, but can be defined in parallel in terms of the existing self, the desired self, and the presented self (how the individual shows himself to others). The formation of self-perception (the process of individuation) is in itself a learning process, and dependent on the basic human needs (for example, affection, love, belonging, contact needs). A long-term education, as a primary school, will inevitably affect the self-perception. Therefore, the development of student relationships is included in teachers' tasks.

Teachers' leadership role in an education group (school class, course members) is shaped by their expectations of the respective individuals. Negative expectations that shine through can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies, positive ones seem encouraging. Behavioral problems in students can be due to such negative expectations. The norms and conformity that develop in a group are the teacher's responsibility for, and at the same time to balance this against the preservation of the individuality of the students. These factors form the basis for both positive interaction, and for peer pressure, bullying and anxiety. As a guideline in most education systems, it is stated that the degree of individuality must not have a negative effect on the ability to function in society, and that the school's goal is to teach students to adapt to the social community.

The education group is affected by the formal and informal group structures, which are determined by social status and influence. How a group cooperates depends in part on the age of those who are part of it: reciprocity only develops around the age of 12, older people often have an already established self-perception and are less malleable, small children interact egocentrically. The interaction in the group affects the acquisition of knowledge by the individuals.

The leadership the teacher has presupposes power, but what conditions the power, and how leadership should be conducted, is very ideologically colored. Communication is the ultimate tool for all forms of leadership. Communication has both a verbal level and a psychological one: the attitude to who says something can sometimes be more decisive than what is actually said. Since the teacher has both a role in the group and responsibility for the group processes, the person in question has a dual role and must be able to analyze himself from the outside.

The content of the education

The content of the education is to a large extent determined by the view of the education's goals. What is not to be taught can sometimes be as controversial as what is to be taught. The view of the role of religion and how religion should be taught to children is also in a broader sense an issue that is extremely controversial.

According to the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, education "shall aim at the full development of the personality and the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Education shall also promote understanding, tolerance and friendship between all nations, racial groups and religious groups and shall promote the activities of the United Nations for the preservation of peace ”(Article 26). There is also talk of an "elementary education" which should be compulsory. The elementary education includes, for example, literacy, basic knowledge of mathematics (the four arithmetic methods), and social studies.

All teaching and upbringing is usually said to have begun in the family and with professionals. These pedagogical tasks have to some extent been taken over by the education systems in the world. The first schools, which trained writers, not only taught the knowledge of writing and reading: with these skills, students also gained access to the jurisprudence, traditions, and sources of the religious cult. In ancient Greece, patriots and the military were needed to defend the city-states, and education was established accordingly. When politics was democratized in Greece, there was a demand for knowledge in rhetoric, which the sophists taught. Education and training were combined in the overall word pedeia, which aimed at lifelong learning. The Romans called the subjects of education the seven free arts, seven subjects that were hierarchically divided according to how they were valued.

Ancient nationalism was temporarily outlawed during the Middle Ages, when the church claimed universalism. Instead of loyalty to the state, the Christian commandments were taught. The Renaissance took over the nationalism of antiquity, and re-established or created the vernacular, also as an educational language. Common to the ancient ideal of education, however, had both the Middle Ages and later educational traditions set the literary, philosophical and scientific education as the goal of education.

Classic teaching situation, where a teacher sits behind a chair with the blackboard behind him, and the students in front of him.

Knowledge in technology was not valued highly enough for the subject to be introduced at universities until more recently. Prior to that, education in this subject was given in the citizens' city schools. Until the Enlightenment, universities were mainly preoccupied with such knowledge as belonged to antiquity and Christianity. From humanism and the Enlightenment, but pronounced first from industrialization, there was a slow turn to secularism in the view of education, in connection with the fact that the concepts of science and knowledge also changed at the expense of the Church's former interpretive precedence. This reversal has led to mathematics becoming an independent subject during the 17th century, and to science being given several new sub-subjects from the 19th century.

Det har sedan urminnes tid svängt flera gånger i synen på vad utbildningen skall tjäna till: bildning eller praktiska färdigheter. En traditionell skiljelinje i bildningsideal går mellan humaniora och naturvetenskaperna, av britten CP Snow 1959 kallade “de två kulturerna”, men klyftan dem emellan kan spåras mycket längre tillbaka. De båda “kulturerna” har traditionellt olika bildningsideal, men konflikten handlar också om ekonomiska resurser, och de skilda vetenskapsteorierna och förklaringsmodellerna som “kulturerna” har. Humanioran har haft svårt att legitimera sin existens, eftersom dess bildning inte leder till en direkt synbar samhällsnytta, utan oftare hänvisat till individens inre utveckling som legitimitet. Naturvetenskapliga ämnen har ibland tillhandahållit naturvetenskapliga förklaringar på humaniorans områden, med ett synsätt som skilt sig från humaniorans. Humanioran betraktar å sin sida naturvetenskaperna som mänskliga konstruktioner, vilket utmanar de naturvetenskapliga sanningsanspråken. Samhällsvetenskapen betraktas ibland som en tredje “kultur”. Enligt Emma Eldelin har motsättningarna skärpts mellan kulturerna, i fråga om vetenskaplig hegemoni och tolkningsföreträde.[24] Ibland förklaras skillnaden mellan kulturerna som att humanioran står för bildning, ett synsätt som dock har angripits.[25]

Education and ideology

Émile Durkheim

A country's education system can be said to have an autonomy in that what true knowledge and education is is determined at academies and at universities, and taught at lower stages. In the education system, said sociologist Émile Durkheim in Pedagogical evolution in France (1938), there is a self-reproduction, but thus he saw the education system as more conservative than the Church. In addition to self-reproduction, the education system is associated with society's customs, traditions, established views and ideas, Halbwachs wrote in the preface to Durkheim. In the words of Pierre Bourdieu and Jean-Claude Passeron, education functions as "a series production of identically programmed individuals /… / of standardized conservation systems and transmission instruments". The education system also has, they point out, a selection system of individuals. Some are appointed to maintain the educational institution and the norms it represents after the education. [26]

Education can therefore be said to have a dual function: the internal and concrete learning, and to establish the external relations by conveying the given social system and worldview to younger generations. Socialists have therefore seen in education systems the preservation function of class society, as an ideological state apparatus. [27] Among those who have dealt with the political function of education are Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-François Lyotard, and to some extent Michel Foucault, as well as the history of ideas and learning as university subjects. Some of Foucault's most central theories have been transferred to the view of education, and have had a great impact there. Such transfers are studies of the “rationalities of governance” in schools, normalization processes, and the teaching discourse's constructions of identity and practices; the studies often aim to work for change where Foucault's theories can be applied, and for self-governing students. Self-government, student democracy, has been adopted as a guideline for education in Sweden, among other places. [28]

For the education process to take place, some conditions must be met: that the education system is generally accepted as neutral and not considered indoctrination, that the selection system is based on diligence, merit and talent, and that the authority of the education system is generally recognized. [29] Such motives are behind demands for independent schools where social groups with different social perceptions than the majority demand that their children be educated according to their worldview, for example religious independent schools where children are educated according to Islam or other religions. The same motives may also lie behind the rejection of the justification for the existence of such independent schools.

Liberals, especially in England, have criticized a state monopoly on education and safeguarded the continued existence of private and independent schools. In many countries there are both private and state universities. Others, from different political quarters, have seen it as a threat to democracy to discriminate between access to education according to wealth or parents' worldview, or to predetermine children's future in class or state specialized education.

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That's how we learn

Synonyms for training

teaching, training, knowledge training, training, studies; school substantiation, prior knowledge